Averages: Both the universal and unit averages are running averages and change with the number of samples we analyze.
Elements: Elements are quantified in the oil at parts per million levels (PPM). This list shows the most common sources of the elements in manual or automatic transmission oil. Following each element is a description of where it comes from. They are grouped by category.
Engine Wear Metals
Aluminum: Torque converter, the case, gear and vane pumps, thrust washers
Chromium: Ball and roller bearings, alloy of steel parts like gears
Iron: Gears, bearings, shafts, some cases, clutch plates
Copper: Bronze bushings, oil cooler oxides, clutch plates, brass fittings
Lead: Residual gear marking compound, alloy of bronze
Tin: Some bearing cages, alloy of bronze
Nickel: Clutch bands, gear/shaft steel alloy
Silver: Some soft friction bearings, Allison needle bearings
Manganese: Alloy of steel
Titanium: Trace wear metal
Sodium: Antifreeze, additive in some engine oils
Silicon: Airborne dirt, sealers, gaskets, sand-casted parts, and spray lubricants, antifreeze
Boron: Detergent/dispersant additive, antifreeze
Calcium: Detergent/dispersant additive
Magnesium: Detergent/dispersant additive
Phosphorus: Anti-wear additive
Zinc: Anti-wear additive
Barium: Detergent/dispersant additive usually found in synthetics
Viscosity/Flashpoint: If a contaminant is present in the oil, the Viscosity and Flashpoint will often be lower than stated in the "Values Should Be" line. A viscosity reading high or low may show oil oxidation.
Antifreeze %: Indicates the amount of antifreeze found in the oil. A question mark means we found possible traces of coolant, but not enough to definitively say it's there.
Water %: Indicates the amount of water found in the oil.
Insolubles %: Insolubles are solid materials present in the oil. They are typically free carbon from the oxidation of the oil itself, and accumulated metal in the system.